Elected officials face the same public policy demands no matter their gender, but how politicians communicate their positions is oftentimes impacted by gendered perceptions from their audiences.
We expect congruency with audience expectations to most strongly impact citizen evaluations. Put differently, the combination of politician gender and issue domain ought to shift citizen expectations. For example, a man legislator can act differently when negotiating about defense policy than he can when doing so regarding education policy. Using a survey experiment on a diverse national sample, we pinpoint when each gender pays a penalty or gains reward for specific emotional appeals.