Heat conduction, convection and radiation. General differential equations for energy transfer. Conductive and convective heat transfer. Molecular, convective and interface mass transfer. The differential equation for mass transfer. Steady state molecular diffusion and film theory. Convective mass transfer correlations. Mass transfer equipment.
A study of momentum, mass and heat transport in living systems. Rheology of blood. Basic hemodynamics. Use of the equations of continuity and motion to set up complex flow problems. Flow within distensible tubes. Shear stress and endothelial cell function. Mass transfer and metabolism in organs and tissues. Microscopic and macroscopic mass balances. Diffusion. Blood-tissue transport of solutes in the microcirculation. Compartmental models for pharmacokinetic analyses. Analysis of blood oxygenators, hemodialysis, tissue growth in porous support materials. Artificial organs. Energy balances and the use of heat to treat tumor growth (radio frequency ablation, cryogenic ablation). Laboratory exercises accompany major topics discussed in class and are conducted at the same time.
MT 602:Principles of Inorganic Materials Synthesis
The goal of this course is to learn the basic concepts commonly utilized in the processing of advanced materials with specific compositions and microstructures. Solid state diffusion mechanisms are described with emphasis on the role of point defects, the mobility of diffusing atoms and their interactions. Macroscopic diffusion phenomena are analyzed by formulating partial differential equations and presenting their solutions. The relationships between processing and microstructure are developed on the basis of the rate of nucleation and growth processes that occur during condensation, solidification and precipitation. Diffusionless phase transformations observed in certain metallic and ceramic materials are discussed.
School: Schaefer School of Engineering & Science
Department: Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
Program: Materials Science
Research Center: New Jersey Center for MicroChemical Systems (NJCMCS)
Research & Education
Microfluidics, Self-Assembly, and Biomaterials
Prof. Woo Lee’s research involves self-assembly, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and microfluidics. He uses an array of state-of-the-art tools such as soft-lithography, inkjet printing, and layer-by-layer and evaporative self-assembly to create new materials and devices. The applications of his research include development of infection-resistant implant surfaces, nanomaterial printing for miniature energetic and energy storage devices, and development of 3D tissue models for studying the systematic interactions of drugs, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and pathogens with the human body.
Ph.D. (Chemical Engineering) - 1990, Georgia Institute of Technology
M.S. (Chemical Engineering) - 1987, Auburn University
B.S. (Chemical Engineering) - 1985, University of Maryland
Experience & Service
Professor and Department Director, Stevens Institute of Technology
Research Staff Member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, July 1992 to July 1997
Research Scientist, United Technologies Research Center, February 1990 to July 1992
Achievements & Professional Societies
Fellow: The American Ceramic Society since 2004.
Member: AAAS, ACerS, AIChE, BMES, MRS, Tau Beta Pi, Omega Chi Epsilon
Invited Lectures: Inter. Conf. on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Daytona Beach, 2008; MRS Fall Meeting - Biofilm-Material Interactions, 2006; NTSI Nanotech Conference, Boston, 2006; Inter. Conf. on Composite Engineering/Nanotechnology, Boulder, 2006; International Workshop on MicroChemical Plants, Japan, 2006. Committees and Panels: Bionanotechnology Committee, New York Academy of Sciences since 2005; NIH Review Panel for RFA DE07-005 Nanostructured Dental Composite Restorative Materials, 2006; International Scientific Committee, Bioceramics 19 Symposium, China, 2006; Faculty Representative, Stevens Trustee Committee on Institute Strategy, 2006.
List of Ph.D. Advisees
Prof. Ying Zhang, Tennessee Technological University Dr. Gi-Youl Kim, Genus Prof. Hao Li, University of Missouri - Columbia Dr. Jinil Lee, Samsung Electronics Dr. Limin He, Aerospace Materials Research Center, China Dr. Yi-Feng Su, Florida State University Dr. Haibiao Chen, UES Prof. Hongwei Qiu, Stevens Institute of Technology Dr. Joung-Hyun “Helen” Lee, Columbia University
Honors & Awards
American Vacuum Society - Tennessee Valley Chapter Scholarship 1988
Outstanding Performance Award, Georgia Tech Research Institute 1989
Sigma Xi Ph.D. Thesis Award, Georgia Tech 1990
Honorary Master of Engineering , Stevens Institute 2008
Grants, Contracts & Funds
Air Force Research Laboratory
Department of Energy
National Science Foundation
Office of Naval Research
Patents & Inventions
U.S. Patent 7238420
U.S. Patent 6808760
U.S. Patent 6322889
U.S. Patent 5843533
U.S. Patent 5709936
U.S. Patent 5672420
U.S. Patent 4920086
X. Chen, Y. Gu, J.-H., Lee, W.Y. Lee, and H. Wang. "Multifunctional Biomimetic Surfaces for Infection Control and Bone Tissue Formation", ECM (under revision).
J.-H. Lee, Y. Gu, H. Wang, and W. Y. Lee. (2012). "Microfluidic 3D Bone Tissue Model for High-Throughput Evaluation of Wound-Healing and Infection-Preventing Biomaterials", Biomaterials. 33, 999-1006.
Y. Gu, X. Chen, J.-H. Lee, D. Monteiro, H. Wang, and W.Y. Lee. (Jan 2012). "Inkjet-Printed Antibiotic- and Calcium-Eluting Bioresorbable Nanocomposite Micropatterns for Orthopaedic Implants", Acta Biomaterialia, 8, 424-31.
A.C Ihnen, A.M. Petrock, T. Chou, P.J. Samuels, B.E. Fuchs, and W.Y. Lee. (2011). "Crystal Morphology Variation in Inkjet-Printed Organic Materials".
L.T. Le, M.H. Ervin, H. Qiu, B.E. Fuchs, and W.Y. Lee. (2011). "Graphene Supercapacitor Electrodes Fabricated by Inkjet Printing and Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide", Electrochemistry Communications (2011), doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2011.01.023.
J.-H. Lee, H. Wang, J.B. Kaplan, and W.Y. Lee. (2011). "Microfluidic Approach to Create 3D Tissue Models Biofilm Related Infection of Orthopaedic Implants", Tissue Engineering C: Methods, 17, 39-48.
H. Qiu, T. Chou, V. Stepanov, and A. Di Stasio, and W.Y. Lee. (2011). "RDX-based Nanocomposite Microparticles for Significantly Reduced Shock Sensitivity", J. of Hazardous Materials, 185, 489-493.
J.-H. Lee, H. Wang, J.B. Kaplan, W.Y. Lee. (2010). "Effects of S. epidermidis on Osteoblast Adhesion and Viability on Ti Alloy Surface in Microfluidic Co-Culture Environment", Acta Biomaterialia, 6 4422-4429.
A.C. Ihnen, J.-H. Lee, and W.Y. Lee. (2010). "Effects of Disordered Hemispherical Micropatterns on Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 75, 601-607.
J.-H. Lee, J. B. Kaplan, and W. Y. Lee, “Microfluidic devices for studying growth and detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms,” Biomedical Microdevices, 110, 489-498. (2008).
Y.-F. Su and W. Y. Lee, “Synthesis of Dense and Uniform Silicate Coating Microstructure by Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Yb2O3 and SiO2 Particles,” Surface Coating Technology, 202, 3661-3668. (2008).
Y.-F. Su, H. Kim, S. Koven, and W. Y. Lee, “Continuous Nanoparticle Production by Microfluidic-Based Emulsion, Mixing, and Crystallization,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 180, 2625-2629. (2007).
P. R. Deduc, M. S. Wong, P. M. Ferreira, R. E. Groff, K. Haslinger, M. P. Koonce, W. Y. Lee, J. C. Love, J. A. McCammon, N.A. Monteiro-Riviere, V. M. Rotello, G. W. Rubloff, R. Westervelt, and M. Yoda. (2007). "Towards an In Vivo Biologically Inspired Nanofactory", Nature Nanotechnology, 2 3-7 .
H. Chen and W. Y. Lee, “Synthesis of Cellular Silica Structure under Microchannel Confinement,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 36-43. (2007).
H. Qiu and W. Y. Lee, “Infiltration and Immobilization of Catalyst Particles into the Confined Space of Microstructured Reactors via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly,” Applied Catalysis A, 314, 200-207. (2006).
H. Qiu, S. Sukhishvili, and W.Y. Lee. (2006). "Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of Ceramic Particles as a Non-line-of-Sight Technique for Coating Complex Shape Substrates", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 89 (4), 1180-87 .
Y.-F Su, H. Chen, and W. Y. Lee. (2005). "Abnormal Grain Growth and Crystallization during Rapid Annealing of Sol-Gel Alumina Thin-film Deposited on Ni-based Superalloy", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 88 3235-37 .
H. Chen, L. Bednarova, R. S. Besser, and W. Y. Lee. (2005). "Surface-Selective Infiltration of Thin-film Catalyst into Microchannel Reactors", Applied Catalysis A, 286 186-195 .
H. Li, J. Lee, G. N. Morscher, and W. Y. Lee. (2004). "Tensile and Stress-Rupture Behavior of SiC/SiC Minicomposites Containing Chemically Vapor Deposited Zirconia Interphase", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 87 (9), 1726-33 .
I. Tsarenko, H. Du, and W.Y. Lee. (2004). "Effects of Thin Mullite Coating on the Environmental Stability of Sintered Si3N4", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 87 (3), 417-20 .
H. Qiu, K. Martus, W.Y. Lee, and K. Becker. (2004). "Hydrogen Generation in a Microhollow Cathode Discharge in High-Pressure Ammonia-Argon Gas Mixtures", Int. J. Mass Spectrom, 233 19-24 .
G.Y. Kim, L.M. He, J.D. Meyer, A. Quintero, J.A. Haynes, and W.Y. Lee. (2004). "Mechanisms of Hf Dopant Incorporation during the Early Stage of CVD Aluminide Coating Growth under Continuous Doping Conditions", Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 35A 3581-93 .
Y.-F. Su, L. F. Allard, D. W. Coffey, and W. Y. Lee. (2004). "Effect of a Thin -Al2O3 Layer on Morphological Development and Growth Kinetics of the Thermally Grown Oxide Formed on Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy Surface", Metall. Mater. Trans, 35A 1055-1065 .
L. M. He, Y.-F. Su, L. F. Allard, M. Lance, and W.Y. Lee. (2004). "Effects of Rapid Heating, Low Pressure Pre-Oxidation, and Hf Contamination on the Nucleation and Growth of Chemically Vapor Deposited -Al2O3 on Single Crystal Ni Superalloy Surface", Metall. Mater. Trans, 35A 1113-1124 .
L. M. He, J.D. Meyer, and W.Y. Lee. (2004). "Effects of Pre-Hafnizing on Morphological Development of a CVD Aluminide Coating Formed on Single Crystal Ni-based Alloys", Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 35A 891-897 .
J. Lee, H. Li, W. Y. Lee, and M. J. Lance. (2003). "Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Nucleation Behavior and Morphology of Chemically Vapor Deposited Zirconia on Hi-NicalonTM Fiber and Si", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 86 2031-36 .
J. Lee, H. Li, and W. Y. Lee. (2003). "Thermal Stability of a Chemically Vapor Deposited Multilayer Coating Containing Amorphous Silica and Rutile Titania on Hi-Nicalon Fiber", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 86 1797-99 .
L. Bednarova, X. Ouyang, H. Chen, W. Y. Lee, and R. S. Besser,. (2003). "Preferential Oxidation of CO in a Microreactor with a Single Channel", Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Fuel Chem. Prepr, 48 (2).
W. Y. Lee, H. Li, and Y.-F. Su. (2003). "Multifunctional Coating Design for High-temperature Materials", Mater. Sci. Forum, 426 137-144 .
I. Tsarenko, S. Park, H. Du, and W. Y. Lee. (2003). "Sol-Gel Alumina Coating for Improved Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Silicon Nitride", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86 1622-1624 .
I. Tsarenko, S. Park, H. Du, and W. Y. Lee. (2003). "Effects of Additive and Impurity Species on the Oxide Morphology of Silicon Nitride,", J. Mater. Res, 18 (4), 878-884 .
Y. Zhang, J.A. Haynes, B.A. Pint, I.G. Wright, and W.Y. Lee. (2003). "Martensitic Transformation in CVD NiAl and (Ni,Pt)Al Bond Coatings", Surf. Coat. Tech., 163/164 19-24 .
L.M. He, K. Putyera, J.D. Meyer, L.R. Walker, and W.Y. Lee. (2002). "Depth Profiling of Hf-doped Aluminide Coating by Glow-Discharge Mass Spectrometry", Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 33A 3578-3582 .
H. Li, J. Lee, M.R. Libera, W.Y. Lee, A. Kebbede, M.J. Lance, H.Y. Wang, and G.N. Morscher. (2002). "Morphological Evolution and Weak Interface Development within CVD-Zirconia Coating Deposited on Hi-Nicalon Fiber,", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 85 (6), 1561-68.
Y.-F. Su, M.A. Torzilli, J.D. Meyer, C.J. Rawn, M.J. Lance, S. Ruppi, and W.Y. Lee. (2002). "Effects of an Electroplated Platinum Interlayer on the Morphology and Phase of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Alumina on Single-Crystal, Ni-Based Superalloy", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 85 2089-2096.
Y. Zhang, J.A. Haynes, W.Y. Lee, I.G. Wright, B.A. Pint, K.M. Cooley, and P.K. Liaw. (2001). "Effects of Pt Incorporation on the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of CVD Aluminide Coatings", Metall. Mater. Trans, 32A 1727-1741 .
G.Y. Kim, W.Y. Lee, J.A. Haynes, and T.R. Watkins. (2001). "Morphological Evolution During the Early Stages of Aluminide Coating Growth on a Single Crystal Ni Superalloy Surface", Metall. Mater. Trans, 32A 615-624 .
Y. Zhang, W.Y. Lee, J.A. Haynes, I.G. Wright, B.A. Pint, K.M. Cooley and P.K. Liaw. (2000). "Synthesis and Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of a (Ni,Pt)Al Coating on a Desulfurized Ni-Base Superalloy", Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 30A 2679.
W.Y. Lee, E. Lara-Curzio, and K.L. More. (1998). "Multilayered Multifunctional Oxide Coating Concept for Satisfying Complex Interface Materials Criteria in Ceramic Matrix Composites", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 81 (3), 717.
W.Y. Lee, Y. Zhang, I.G. Wright, B.A. Pint, and P.K. Liaw. (1998). "Effects of Sulfur Impurity on the Scale Adhesion Behavior of a Desulfurized Ni-based Superalloy Aluminized by Chemical Vapor Deposition", Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 29A 833.
B.A. Pint, I.G. Wright, W.Y. Lee, Y. Zhang, K. Prüner, and K.B. Alexander. (1998). "Substrate and Bond Coat Compositions: Factors Affecting Alumina Scale Adhesion", Mat. Sci. Eng., A245 201.
Y.W. Bae, W.Y. Lee, T.M. Besmann, O.B. Cavin, and T.R. Watkins. (1998). "Effects of Processing Parameters on Al2O3 Coating Deposited on Ni Substrates by Reacting AlCl3 and H2/CO2 Gas Mixtures,", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 81 1945.
M.A. Borst, W.Y. Lee, Y. Zhang, and P.K. Liaw. (1997). "Preparation and Characterization of Chemically Vapor Deposited ZrO2 Coating on Nickel and Ceramic Fiber Substrates", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 80 1591.
W.P. Parks, E.E. Hoffman, W.Y. Lee, and I.G. Wright. (1997). "Thermal Barrier Coatings Issues in Advanced Land-Based Gas Turbines", J. Thermal Spray Technology, 6 (2), 187.
W.Y. Lee, D.P. Stinton, C.C. Berndt, F. Erdogan, Y.D. Lee, Z. Mutasim. (1996). "Concept of Functionally Graded Materials for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating Applications: A Review", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 79 (12), 3003.
W.Y. Lee, K.M. Cooley, C.C. Berndt, D.L. Joslin, and D.P. Stinton. (1996). "High-Temperature Chemical Stability of Plasma Sprayed Ca0.5Sr0.5Zr4P6O24 Coatings on Nicalon/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite and Ni-Based Superalloy Substrates", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 79 (10), 2759 .
W.Y. Lee, K.L. More, D.P. Stinton, and Y.W. Bae. (1996). "Characterization of Si3N4 Coated with Chemically Vapor Deposited Mullite after Na2SO4 Induced Corrosion,", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79 (9), 2489 .
W.Y. Lee, D.P. Stinton, and D.L. Joslin. (1996). "Interaction of Low-Expansion NZP Ceramics with Na2SO4 at 1000˚C", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 79 (2), 484 .
Y.W. Bae, W.Y. Lee, C.S. Yust, P.J. Blau, and T.M. Besmann. (1996). "Preparation and Friction Characteristics of Self-Lubricating TiN+MoS2 Composite Coatings", Mater. Sci. Eng. A209 372 .
Y.W. Bae, W.Y. Lee, C.S. Yust, P.J. Blau, and T.M. Besmann. (1996). "Synthesis and Friction Behavior of Chemically Vapor Deposited Composite Coatings Containing TiN and MoS2 Phases", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 79 (4), 819.
W.Y. Lee, Y.W. Bae, and K.L. More. (1995). "Synthesis of Functionally Graded Metal-Ceramic Microstructures by Chemical Vapor Deposition,", J. Mater. Res., , 10 (12), 3000 .
W.Y. Lee, Y.W. Bae, and D.P. Stinton. (1995). "Na2SO4 Induced Corrosion of Si3N4 Coated with Chemically Vapor Deposited Ta2O5", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 78 (7), 1927 .
Y.W. Bae, W.Y. Lee, and D.P. Stinton. (1995). "Effects of Temperature and Reagent Concentration on the Morphology of Chemically Vapor Deposited -Ta2O5", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 78 (5), 1297 .
Y.W. Bae, W.Y. Lee, T.M. Besmann, and P.J. Blau,. (1995). "Nanoscale Hardness and Microfriction of Titanium Nitride Films Deposited from the Reaction of Tetrakis(Dimethylamino) Titanium with Ammonia", Appl. Phys. Lett, 66 (15), 1895 .
W.Y. Lee and K.L. More. (1995). "Crystal Orientation and Near-interface Structure of Chemically Vapor Deposited MoS2 Films", J. Mater. Res, 10 (1), 49 .
W.Y. Lee, T.M. Besmann, and M.W. Scott. (1994). "Preparation of MoS2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition", J. Mater. Res, 9 (6), 1474 .
W.Y. Lee and J.R. Strife. (1993). "Effects of SiF4 and NH3 Concentrations on the Low-Pressure CVD of Polycrystalline -Si3N4", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 76 542 .
W.Y. Lee, J.R. Strife, and R.D. Veltri. (1992). "Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of -Si3N4 from NH3 and SiF4: Nucleation and Growth Characteristics", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 75 2803 .
W.Y. Lee, J.R. Strife, and R.D. Veltri. (1992). "Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of -Si3N4 from NH3 and SiF4: Kinetic Characteristics", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 75 2200 .
W.Y. Lee, W.J. Lackey, P.K. Agrawal, and G.B. Freeman. (1991). "Simultaneous Chemical Vapor Deposition of Boron Nitride and Aluminum Nitride", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 74 2649 .
W.Y. Lee, W.J. Lackey, G.B. Freeman, P.K. Agrawal, and D.J. Twait. (1991). "Preparation of Dispersed Phase Ceramic BN+AlN Composite Coatings by Chemical Vapor Deposition", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 74 2136 .
W.Y. Lee, W.J. Lackey, and P.K. Agrawal. (1991). "Kinetic Analysis of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Boron Nitride", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 74 2642 .
W.Y. Lee, W.J. Lackey, and P.K. Agrawal. (1991). "Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analyses of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Nitride", J. Am. Ceram. Soc.,, 74 1821 .
J.A. Hanigofsky, K.L. More, W.J. Lackey, W.Y. Lee, and G.B. Freeman. (1991). "Composition and Microstructure of Chemically Vapor Deposited BN, AlN, BN+AlN Composites", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 74 301 .
D.J. Twait, W.J. Lackey, A.W. Smith, W.Y. Lee, and J.A. Hanigofsky. (1990). "Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemical Vapor Deposition of BN+AlN Composite Coatings", J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 73 1511 .
W.Y. Lee, R.H. Raythatha, and B.J. Tatarchuk. (1989). "Pillared Clay Catalysts Containing Mixed-Metal Complexes: I. Preparation and Characterization", J. Catalysis, 115 159 .
W.Y. Lee and B.J. Tatarchuk. (1988). "Mössbauer Studies of High Surface Area Pillared Clays Containing Mixed Metal Complexes,", Hyperfine Interactions, 41 661 .